Joseph Baermann Strauss Timeline

 

The following timeline consists of brief highlights. For a more detailed timeline refer to this Word document.

 

Acronyms:

CE = Chief Engineer

GG = Golden Gate

GGB = Golden Gate Bridge

GGBHD = Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District

 

 

Date

 

 

Event

 

1870 Jan 9

 

 

Born in Cincinnati, Ohio of Raphael and Caroline Baermann Strauss

 

1885-1888

 

 

Attended old Hughes High School on East 5th Street

 

1888-1892

 

 

Attended University of Cincinnati

 

1889

 

 

Began work to establish a chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon on the Cincinnati campus

 

 

1891-1892

 

 

President of class of 1892

 

1892

 

 

 

Graduated from University of Cincinnati with a Civil Engineering degree.  Presented plan to build a 50-mile railroad bridge across the Bering Straits.

 

 

1892

 

 

Draftsman for New Jersey Steel and Iron Company in Trenton

 

1894

 

 

Instructor in engineering at University of Cincinnati

 

1895-1897

 

Detailer, inspector, estimator and then designer for Lassig Bridge & Iron Company, Chicago

 

 

1895 Jun 9

 

 

Married May Van, daughter of Charles Van of Cincinnati, in Chicago

 

1897-1899

 

 

Designer and squad boss for Sanitary District of Chicago

 

1899

 

Principal assistant engineer, Chicago office manager for Ralph Modjeski, consulting engineer

 

 

1902

 

 

Started own firm, the Strauss Bascule Bridge Company of Chicago [later became Strauss Engineering Corporation]

 

 

1902

 

 

Built first bascule rail bridge near Lake Erie over Cuyahoga River

 

 

Patented the Strauss Trunnion Bascule Bridge

 

 

1905

 

 

University of Cincinnati College of Engineering founded

 

1914

 

Completed single-leaf Strauss bascule bridge over Calumet River at South Chicago

 

 

1914

 

 

 

Completed double-leaf Strauss bascule bridge over U.S. Ship Canal at Sault Ste Marie MI

 

1915

 

 

Designed and built Aeroscope for 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco

 

 

1915

 

Completed double-leaf Strauss bascule bridge over Neva River in Petrograd, Russia to the former Winter Palace of the Czar

 

 

1917

 

Strauss asked by Michael O’Shaughnessy, San Francisco city engineer, to offer “an opinion on the feasibility of building a bridge over the Golden Gate” [Thomas D. O’Connor, “The Golden Dream,” The Enquirer Magazine, Sunday, September 19, 1982]

 

 

1919 Apr 1

 

 

Received patent for Reinforced Concrete Gondola Car

 

1920 Jan 20

 

 

Received patent for “disappearing” Observation Tower

 

1920

 

 

Designed and built bascule door hangar

 

1920

 

 

Strauss sought and received survey of the GG channel floor

 

1921 Jun 28

 

Submitted preliminary sketches of GGB to Michael M. O’Shaughnessy, San Francisco City Engineer

 

 

1921 Aug 3

 

Transmitted blueprint for the GGB and estimate ($17,000,000).  $13,700,000 for the superstructure and $3,300,000 for the substructure.

 

 

1921

 

 

Strauss hired Charles Ellis, civil engineer 

 

1922 Mar 1

 

 

Submitted prospectus of the GGB.

 

1922

 

Proposed formation of special district to construct the GGB, along with O’Shaughnessy and Edward Rainey, Secretary to the Mayor of San Francisco

 

 

1923 Jan 13

 

 

Association of Bridging the Gate formed.

 

1923 May 25

 

 

Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act enacted

 

1924 Aug 26

 

 

Received patent for Military Reconnoitering Apparatus

 

1924 Dec 20

 

 

Provisional permit to construct the GGB

 

1925 Feb 3

 

 

Received patent for Bascule Door Hangar

 

1925 May 23

 

 

GGBHD Act published

 

1929

 

Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District organized. William P. Filmer, President and James Reed, General Manager

 

 

1929 Aug 15

 

 

Strauss appointed Chief Engineer (CE)

 

1929 Aug

 

First meeting of panel of consulting engineers: Moisseiff (leading suspension bridge theorist and designer), Ammann, Derleth

 

 

1929 Oct 1

 

 

Contract for the land and water test borings for GGB

 

1929 Oct 7

 

 

Strauss contract as CE signed

 

1929

 

 

Strauss Engineering Corporation

 

1929

 

Strauss appointed Charles Ellis, Vice President in Strauss Engineering Corporation, as design engineer for the GGB

 

 

1929 Oct 24

 

Strauss met Keesling of GGBHD Board for first time, in New York

 

 

1929 Nov 25

 

 

Test borings begun at pier sites

 

1930 Jan 21

 

 

Strauss addressed Rotary Club lunch, Keesling present

 

1930

 

 

GGB building permit issued by War Department

 

1930 Feb 25

 

 

Preliminary test boring completed

 

1930 Mar 12

 

 

Progress report by Strauss to District Board and engineering consultants

 

1930 Jun 12

 

 

Meeting of GGB consultants in Chicago to review Ellis’ preliminary plans

 

1930 Jun

 

 

 

Strauss awarded honorary Doctor of Science degree (D.Sc.) from University of Cincinnati by Herman Schneider, President

 

1930

 

 

 

In charge of design/construction of the Columbia River Bridge at Longview WA, completed in 1930

 

1930

 

Co-designer of Montreal-South Shore Bridge with a Canadian firm

 

 

1930 Jun 26

 

Strauss and Filmer got testimony from Captain Dollar re bridge clearance

 

 

1930 July 8

 

 

 

Keesling reported on investigation of Chamber of Commerce and possibility of a personal attack on Strauss

 

1930 Aug 22

 

Ellis took his preliminary plans to San Francisco.  Strauss had prepared report separately and the GGB directors had it rewritten by the traffic engineer, according to Ellis, who traced Strauss displeasure with him to this occasion.  Strauss sent Ellis back to Chicago rather than having him remain in San Francisco to give technical advice.

 

 

1930 Aug 28

 

Keesling reviewed Strauss report [to be submitted to voters] with Strauss, Alan MacDonald [General Manager], Ellis. “...expressing to Professor Ellis my criticism of the Strauss report, the danger of exaggerations, and inaccuracies appearing in the part of the report is largely surplusage.”  Ellis then delivered a copy of Strauss’ report, volume 1, as requested by Keesling. [From Keesling’s Daily Calendar]

 

 

1930 Sep 1

 

Keesling phoned Filmer with criticism of report

 

 

1930 Sep 2

 

 

Keesling arranged for conference on Strauss report with Ellis

 

1930 Sep 3

 

 

Keesling arranged for conference on Strauss report with MacDonald & Taylor

 

1930 Sep 5

 

 

Keesling met with Strauss and MacDonald

 

1930 Sep 23

 

Keesling met with Strauss and Duncan re ship owners, desiring 250’ vertical clearance under GGB

 

 

1930 Sep

 

Ellis made keynote address on theory of the GGB to scientists at the West Coast meeting of the National Academy of Sciences in Berkeley.

 

 

1930 Oct 16

 

Commonwealth Club meeting on bridge design, with Derleth crediting Moisseiff and Ellis for the expert design in arguing against detractors of the GGB project

 

 

1930 Nov 4

 

 

$35 million in bonds voted by people of District

 

1930 Nov 18

 

Strauss report outlining engineering procedure for construction of GGB.  Report designated Ellis director of the Computation Division, to compute stresses.  Also under Ellis the specs, contracts and proposal forms, to be reviewed by Mr. Paine in the Plans Division.  Preparation of general plans and checking the Contractor’s working plans asssigned to the Plans Division under Clifford E. Paine.  Both Divisions to be in Chicago.

 

 

1930 Nov

 

According to Ellis, Strauss put Paine in charge of GGB project (former student of Ellis and recruited by Ellis to Strauss Engineering Corporation).  Strauss assigned Ellis to write all the specs for the complete job (10 different contracts). [From van der Zee, John and Cone, Russ “The case of the missing engineer,” San Francisco Examiner Image, May 31, 1992, pp. 6-11]

 

 

1931 Dec 12

 

Keesling met with Ammann in NYC re practice of submitting plans for entire GGB structure all at once, which Strauss had said could be done without detriment

 

 

1931 Mar 12

 

At consulting board meeting, Strauss presented his own specs for the 10 contracts.  They were revised and submitted to the Board.  Ellis completed his own specifications, which became the official specifications for the bridge in 8 volumes.  Bids for the GGB based on Ellis’ specifications. [per van der Zee article]

 

 

1931 April 10

 

Strauss filed with GGBHD blueprints for

·        General Plan and Elevation

·        Presidio road map, property map and road profile

·        Ft. Baker right-of-way map

·        Plan, elevation and sections of structure near Fort Point – bridge ends

 

 

1931 May 6

 

Strauss met with Keesling re borings

 

 

1931 Jun 17

 

GGB bids opened

 

 

1931

 

Ellis returned to Chicago office to work on bridge towers.  Strauss urged him to take vacation. [per van der Zee]

 

 

1931 Jun 19

 

Strauss asked Professor Beggs to confer with his engineers and consultants re proposal and cost of making model tests of the GGB main towers.  Beggs met with Ellis, Paine, Derleth, Ammann, Moisseiff and Troxell.

 

 

1931 Jun 22

 

Beggs report on proposed model construction and cost

 

 

1931 Jun 25

 

Strauss sought approval to move drilling apparatus

 

 

1931 Jul 7

 

 

Strauss met with Keesling re duties of engineers re inspection

 

1931 Jul 9

 

Strauss met with Keesling re bonds and funds for his commissions

 

 

1931 Jul 31

 

Strauss met with Keesling re Pacific Bridge Co. bid

 

 

1931 Aug 10

 

Strauss called Keesling with info from Dean Witter re loan for Bridge District based on option to buy bonds.  Keesling reaction:  “...my personal reaction that it is none of Strauss’ business to be interfering.”  [From Keesling Daily Calendar]

 

 

1931 Aug 11

 

Received patent for Yielding Barrier for Vehicles

 

 

1931 Dec 5

 

Strauss urges Ellis to take two week vacation [per van der Zee]

 

 

1931 Dec 1

 

Strauss advises Ellis he need not spend so much time on structure.  Put him on indefinite vacation without pay, i.e. dismissed. [van der Zee]

 

 

1932 Apr 9

 

Strauss wrote Beggs re preliminary experiments on bridge tower model.  Not prepared for further testing on a larger model as yet.  Waiting for financing litigation final brief of the federal court case to go to Judge April 11 and be concluded mid May.

 

 

1932

 

Strauss was consulting engineer for Arlington Memorial Bridge over the Potomac River, completed 1932

 

 

1932 May 9

 

Strauss met with Keesling about compensation for services rendered in order to provide complete detailed plans for GGB before submission of the bond issue to the voters

 

 

1932

 

Nervous breakdown; spent time in Adirondacks

 

 

1932

 

Wrote poem “The Redwoods,” published as a song

 

 

1932 Sep 15

 

Strauss and Filmer met with Building Trades Council re employment of only union labor.  [Not legal to restrict, says Keesling in his Calendar]

 

 

1932 Nov 30

 

Strauss reported on surveys of north/south road

 

 

1932 Dec 1

 

Keesling met briefly with Paine re Ellis to review tenor of Ellis’ activities.  Keesling suggested that Strauss should grant Ellis an interview if at all possible.

 

 

1932 Dec 1

 

Moisseiff wrote letter to Derleth indicating that steel-inspecting engineer Baker did not wish to have inspection headquartered in Chicago, as requested by Paine on behalf of Strauss.  Moisseiff and Ammann prefer NYC. 

 

 

1932 Dec 13

 

Strauss and MacDonald met with Keesling re McClintic-Marshall contract provisions

 

 

1932 Dec 19

 

From Keesling’s Calendar: “...reviewing with W.P. Filmer unsatisfactory results and lack of accomplishment of Strauss, conferences and contacts with Highway Commission.  Evidence of attempt to shift responsibility and necessity of protecting against it.  Discussed managerial problems.  Further discussion at luncheon relative to having the advice and suggest of Clark Cottrell” re North Road problems.

 

 

1932 Dec 20

 

H.V. Tucker called Keesling to request information concerning informal action of the Engineer and General Manager as to qualifications [from Keesling Calendar]

 

 

1932 Dec 29

 

Keesling phoned Strauss re computation of effect of proposals re McClintic-Marshall contract

 

 

1933 Jan

 

Construction of Golden Gate Bridge began

 

 

1933 Jan 19

 

Strauss’ secretary Miss Burns sick, putting Strauss behind in correspondence

 

 

1933 Jan 20

 

Strauss phoned Keesling to alert that inspecting engineer Baker had arrived

 

 

1933 Jan 30

 

Strauss ordered a fleet to San Francisco for celebration

 

 

1933 Feb

 

First official spade of earth was turned for GGB

 

 

1933 Feb 1

 

Keesling met with Reed, who had conference with Baker re inspection and Reed report as to supervision, desiring protection against Strauss [Strauss had wanted Baker to report to him and have Chicago as his home office]

 

 

1933 Feb 3

 

On the GGBHD Building Committee agenda: the Baker contract or letter and Reed’s understanding with Strauss.  Strauss letter unsatisfactory and to be modified.

 

 

1933 Feb 18

 

Keesling conferred with Reed re Strauss’ attitude re the type of inspection if he must bear the cost

 

 

1933 Feb 25

 

Strauss spoke at GGB Banquet commemorating the ground-breaking ceremonies, Fairmont Hotel

 

 

1933 Mar 2

 

Strauss called Keesling to confer re interpretation of the contract re responsibility for inspection

 

 

1933 Mar 3

 

Strauss wrote Beggs wanting revised proposal from Beggs re model test to present to GGBHD Board

 

 

1933 Mar

 

Much correspondence re interpretation of Strauss’ contract vis-a-vis field inspection and who pays for it

 

 

1933  Mar 9

 

Ammann wrote Strauss re interpretation of the contract re field inspection, advised that the contract implies Strauss should pay for it

 

 

1933 Mar 16

 

Beggs wrote Strauss with revised proposal for model test

 

 

1933 Apr 4

 

Strauss wrote Keesling re who bears cost of inspection, District or Strauss?

 

 

1933 Apr 7

 

Harlan [District lawyer] says interest contemplated by Strauss provision for specified amounts

 

 

1933  Jun 7

 

Keesling met with Paine, Derleth, Reed re plans for marina connections

 

 

1933 Jun 23

 

Keesling confered with Reed re Strauss Co. statement prepared by Paine for fees.  Keesling Calendar:  “...policy of requiring Strauss’ presence in order to prevent evasion and delay.”

 

 

1933 Jun 29

 

Keesling Calendar:  “...phoned Cone, informing him of purpose of insisting upon conference with Strauss and confidence in him personally, in order to avoid misunderstanding.  Same expression to Paine, calling him at Strauss’ office.”  Keesling had conference with Filmer re Strauss situation.

 

 

1933 Jul 19

 

Strauss called Keesling re status of Contracts IV and V.  Keesling requested conference for consideration of problems re fees and extras.

 

 

1933 Aug

 

Strauss absent

 

 

1933 Aug 7

 

Strauss addressed long (12-page) letter to Keesling stating his position re the contract and field inspection, extra work, and terms of payment.

 

 

1933 Aug 20

 

Building Committee reviewed extensive letter from Strauss re cost of inspection and extras

 

 

1933 Aug 24

 

Building Committee: Sidney Taylor letter to Strauss re to desirability of traffic study as related to streets in San Francisco.  Not much impressed with it.  ???  [From Keesling Calendar]

 

 

1933 Sep 1

 

Strauss called Keesling “...relating to claims for adjustment and interpretation of contract as related to inspection and extra work.  Informed Strauss of my general attitude and as well statement made by Moisieff relating to the intention of fixing responsibility for payment by the Engineer of expense of inspection in the field.  Strauss disturbed by wheat he believes to be lack of co-operation.  He referred to activities of progress and cost estimates from the office of the District and criticisms by Mr. Murtagh, a discharged inspector.  Informed him that my interpretation of commissions from the General Manager based upon Murtagh criticism intended only as support by the Engineer in urging greater progress by Barrett & Hilp.  [From Keesling Calendar]

 

 

1933 Nov 1

 

Keesling went to south works with Strauss, Cone, Derleth re fender damage

 

 

1933 Nov 20

 

Keesling met with Strauss and Filmer at Strauss’ office “relating to attitude of directors, which is disturbing Strauss, who believes that an unfortunate prejudice exists among some of the directors.  Some disturbances in inter-office relations.”  Suggested all communications go through General Manager.

 

 

1933 Nov 24

 

GGBHD Attorney and General Manager prepared analysis of CE’s contract

 

 

1934 Jan 4

 

Above analysis sent to Building Committee

 

 

1934 Jan 17

 

Strauss wrote Keesling that he didn’t have a chance to review the analysis before it went to the Building Committee, as initially agreed.  Asked for additional response time.

 

 

1934 Jan 18

 

GGBHD Building Committee considered Strauss’ revised letter re interpretation of his contract

 

 

1934 Jan 20

 

Beggs at Princeton tested model of bridge tower

 

 

1934 Jan 25

 

Beggs wrote Strauss re demo test presentation January 20

 

 

1934 Feb 1

 

Keesling Calender re Strauss: “...conflict of authority related to releasing information concerning soundings”

 

 

1934 Feb 2

 

Moisseiff wrote Paine; Begg’s concerns academic.  Analysis is sufficient.

 

 

1934 Feb 6

 

Beggs wrote Paine re torsional stresses

 

 

1934 Feb 7

 

Paine from Strauss Engineering Corporation wrote Moisseiff agreeing that Begg’s testing was sufficient.

 

 

1934 Feb 16

 

Keesling conferred with Strauss re relief map incident, with Keesling expressing regret at Strauss’ continued chagrin and denial of all knowledge and admonishing discontinuance of an unfortunate attitude.

 

 

1934 Feb 19

 

Keesling conferred with Strauss re relief map.  There were indications Strauss would criticize it, which would create public misunderstanding.  Strauss informed Keesling his (Strauss’) check had proved the map to be substantially correct. 

Keesling then met with Filmer re the importance of coordination between Reed (General Manager) and the CE (Strauss) notwithstanding difficulties; essential to keep the CE informed, not only for cooperation and service, but as well to avoid disavowal of responsibility.  The importance of such policy stressed by additional information from PWA local authorities, lack of consultation with the CE necessitating personal request for conference between the CE and the local Board.

 

 

1934 Mar 1

 

Keesling had informal conference with Strauss re Strauss’ apprehensions concerning delay

 

 

1934 Mar 1

 

Strauss lawyers John L. McNab and Henry C. Clausen submit opinion on inspection issue

 

 

1934 Mar 16

 

Strauss advised no further tests with model needed

 

 

1934 Apr 18

 

Strauss hearing with GGBHD Board

 

 

1934 Apr 28

 

Keesling read argument of Strauss’ counsel

 

 

1934 Jul 6

 

Keesling interviewed Strauss re assumption re field inspection costs and alternate Funston Ave approach

 

 

1934 Jul 20

 

Building Committee reviewed calculation of Strauss payments

 

 

1934 Jul 30

 

Building Committee met re annoyance of controversy between Contractor and Chief Engineer and General Manager re added reinforcement in south pier

 

 

1934 Aug-Sep

 

Keesling reviewed Strauss contract

 

 

1934 Sept

 

Keesling reviewed McClintic-Marshall contract

 

 

1934 Sept 24

 

Meeting of all the above

 

 

1934 Sept 28

 

Keesling conferred with Strauss re information from Cone re proposed installment payment of salaries

 

 

1934 Oct 1

 

Strauss called Keesling re transcript of testimony in Bailey Willis matter

 

 

1934 Oct 8

 

Caisson for south pier towed into position.  Storm that night (heaviest in 30 years) damaged mooring cables and steel work supporting the working platform

 

 

1934 Oct 9

 

Strauss went to scene, discussed situation with Cone and Derleth, and later Pacific Bridge Company and Reed.

 

 

1934 Oct 10

 

Strauss permitted contractor to remove the caisson for south pier

 

 

1934, Oct 16

 

Paine attended meeting re McClintic-Marshall Co.

 

 

1934 Oct 19

 

 

Strauss distressed that McClintic-Marshall Co. withheld construction schedule

 

1934 Oct 27

 

Strauss wrote Ammann and Moisseiff re their review of the new construction method

 

 

1934 Oct 31

 

Strauss call Keesling to object to further borings

 

 

1934 Oct 31

 

Strauss reported to Building Committee on revised procedure for construction of the pier.

 

 

1934 Nov 6

 

Strauss wrote Lawson and Sedgwick re foundation loads for the south pier

 

 

1934 Nov 14

 

Strauss submitted report re revised procedure

 

 

1934 Nov 19

 

Strauss special report on changing the construction method for the south pier to Building Committee.

 

 

1935 Jan 24

 

Strauss wrote Derleth re Cone’s report on pressure tests for the south pier

 

 

1935 Feb 14

 

Keesling inquired re litigation involving Chief Engineer personally from Behrens of the Chronicle

 

1935 Feb 27

 

Keesling conferred with Strauss re his personal troubles, and determining his stand on his claim for fees.

Keesling referred to litigation [against Strauss] instituted by Doc Meyers and other litigation and complications, claim for compensation for services under an earlier engagement [without foundation said Strauss].  Also pending action against the District for 1% additional.  Strauss’ concern resulted from what he believed to be antagonism in the office, and antagonism of the [District] attorney, which developed as a result of claims for extra work.  Lack of coordination....

 

 

1935 Mar 9

 

Strauss received report on settlement levels from Cone

 

 

1935 Summer

 

Operated experimental school for transient boys in Clyde CA

 

 

1935 Jul 23

 

Strauss asked Keesling for pay

 

 

1935 Aug 5

 

Keesling met with Strauss re extra work fee problems.

 

 

1935 Nov 9,11

 

 

Keesling met with Strauss re toll plaza

 

1935 Nov 16

 

Strauss called Keesling re work fees

 

 

1935-1936

 

Strauss submitted memos and details re military replacements 10/7/35, 11/25/35, 12/30/35, 1/14/36

 

 

1936 Feb 6

 

Strauss submitted letter re fees

 

 

1936 Feb 7,12,21

 

 

Keesling met with Strauss re fees

 

1936 Feb 24

 

 

Building Committee met re Strauss fees

 

1936 Feb 26

 

Keesling received communication from Internal Revenue Department re Strauss unpaid taxes.  Conferred with Attorney Harlan to reply to Collector.

 

 

1936 Mar 6

 

Strauss writes Reed re simplifying toll classifications

 

 

1936 Apr 1,23

 

Keesling met with Strauss re his financial difficulties and extra compensation for military replacements

 

 

1936 Apr 29

 

Strauss rejected some cable from Roebling based on specs

 

 

1936 May 8

 

Pay advance arrangement for CE

 

 

1936 Aug 31

 

Keesling met with Strauss re publicity releases in paper and re his re-opening claim for compensation for military replacements, forgetting or overlooking his own attitude toward the Board which indicates only a desire to get everything that he can.  This is proved by Strauss’ claims for extra compensation by reason of delay, etc for an additional 1% to which he is not entitled.  [Keesling Calendar]

 

 

1936 Sept 21

 

Strauss submitted request for extra compensation again

 

 

1936 Oct 2

 

Keesling met with Strauss re his financial distress

 

 

1936 Oct 26

 

Strauss litigation discussed by Keesling with Attorney Harlan re expert testimony, problems relating to Derleth [didn’t want to testify and jeopardize relationship with Strauss] and data in files

 

 

1936 Nov 2

 

Keesling reviewed Strauss litigation

 

 

1936 Nov 18

 

Strauss attorney John L. McNab wrote Filmer that jury decided in favor of Strauss and summarized the case

 

 

1937 Feb 17

 

Work on GGB suspended due to accident with stripping platform

 

 

1937 Feb 20

 

Strauss inspected accident site and recovered net

 

 

1937 May 26

 

Construction of Golden Gate Bridge completed

 

 

1937 May 27

 

Bridge opened to pedestrians. Dedication party attended by UC President Raymond Walters

 

 

1937

 

Strauss proposed rapid transit system for Los Angeles

 

 

1938 May 16

 

Died in Los Angeles from heart condition, buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale.  In Memoriam statement in back cover of GGBHD 1937-1938 Annual Report states:  “...construction of the Golden Gate Bridge culminated his great career as a bridge engineer.”

 

 

1938

 

Strauss succeeded by Russ Cone as Chief Engineer of GGB

 

 

1938 Sept 14

 

GGB plaque dedication ceremony

 

 

1941 May 28

 

Statue of Strauss by Frederick W. Schweigardt of San Francisco unveiled